Red List of South African Species

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Vulnerable (VU)
Assessors: Michael Samways
Contributors: Frank Suhling
Facilitators: Dewidine Van Der Colff
Reviewers: Domitilla Raimondo


A mainly coastal species whose range extends from northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to East Africa. It is not threatened across most of its range at present. However, in South Africa, the species has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 2,050 km2 and an area of occurrence (AOO) of 44 km2 with between five and 10 locations recorded. It is experiencing continuous threat of habitat degradation due to human transformation in northern Kwazulu-Natal in the form of insecticide spraying against malaria and ngana. It is assessed as Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+B2 ab(iii). Since this is a regional assessment at the national level a regional adjustment was considered, however there is limited immigration from neighbouring countries, hence no adjustment has been applied.


This species is recorded mainly along the coast of the Indian Ocean from South Africa to Kenya, also Uganda and Malawi. However, this may include more than one species (see taxonomic notes). Within the southern Africa region, it is only recorded from a few records along coastal KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Population trend


Population size and trends within the region are unknown.


Human transformation of the landscape in Zululand, as well as insecticidal sprays against malaria and ngana.


None in place but it does occur in the coastal reserves in northern KwaZulu-Natal.

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