Red List of South African Species

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Near Threatened (NT)


This species is endemic to the southern Africa region, where it has a wide distribution. Threats are unknown across most of its range, but if it is in decline, it is unlikely to be declining at a rate fast enough to qualify for listing in a threat or Near Threatened category at present. It is assessed as Least Concern globally. However, in South Africa, following extensive and intensive searches it was found to be absent from former localities but discovered in new localities that were still undisturbed. It is known from an area of occupancy (AOO) of 120 km2, and is present in more than 10 locations. As this species is resident, and subpopulations have already been lost, and it is susceptible to drought in parts of its range and impacted by threats such as poor forestry practice, and trampling of its habitat by cattle this species is assessed as Near Threatened B2b(i,iii,iv) nationally. Since this is a regional assessment at the national level a regional adjustment has been considered, however, there is low connectivity between neighbouring populations, and hence the adjustment has not been implemented.


This species is endemic to the southern Africa region. It has been recorded from west Angola (near the Democratic Republic of the Congo border), through Zambia and Zimbabwe to Mozambique, and northern South Africa (Waterberg and Soutpansberg ranges). In central Africa, it is likely to occur in southern Democratic Republic of Congo but there are no data available.

Population trend


Population size and trends are unknown. However, throughout its wide range it is unlikely to be declining at a rate that would qualify it for a threat category. However, this is not the case for South Africa where it has been lost from parts of the Soutpansberg.


In South Africa, threats include poor forestry practice of planting into the riparian zone and allowing proliferation of invasive alien bushes and trees (Samways 2006) with loss of subpopulations in Limpopo Province, especially in the Soutpansberg. Further, cattle trampling has also been identified as a threat to this species habitat, causing habitat degradation.


Research into population numbers and range, threats, conservation measures, and trends/monitoring of this species would be valuable. Habitat and site-based actions are also required. Removal of invasive alien trees and plantation trees along river banks would help conserve this species.

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