Red List of South African Species

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Endangered (EN)
A2ac; B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii)
Assessors: Michael Samways
Facilitators: Dewidine Van Der Colff
Reviewers: Domitilla Raimondo


Agriocnemis ruberrima subspecies ruberrima has a restricted range occurring only in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with a area of occupancy (AOO) of 36 km2 and extent of occurrence (EOO) of 4427 km2 and is known from less than five locations. It is experiencing continuous decline in habitat availability and quality due to urbanization and industrialization and the impacts of a lowered water table and impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation events which act synergistically with other threats. The subspecies has also experienced a population reduction in the last 10 years of more than 50% of its subpopulations. The nominate subspecies is currently only known from South Africa and is assessed as Endangered A2ac; B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii) at the national level.


This subspecies is endemic to South Africa. Agriocnemis ruberrima subspecies ruberrima has only been recorded from northern KwaZulu-Natal (Samways 2008, Samways and Simaika 2016).

Population trend


In South Africa there has been massive declines of the Agriocnemis ruberrima subspecies ruberrima. Two subpopulations of this subspecies have been lost from the Richard’s Bay area, and two from the Greater Isimangaliso Wetlands Park (Cape Vidal area), which is more than 50% of the known subpopulations, has been lost in the last 10 year.


The status of Agriocnemis ruberrima subspecies ruberrima is of great concern as it has been lost from many of its strongholds around Richard’s Bay through urbanization and industrialization and possibly also due to the lowering of the water table due to crop irrigation. El Niño Southern Oscillation events have a great effect on the taxon; these climatic oscillations seem to have an adversely synergistic effect when combined with the anthropogenic impacts.


In South Africa, further searches for subpopulations are required, as many sites have been lost from its stronghold near Richard’s Bay. Elsewhere in the taxon’s range, no conservation measures are known to be in place or are recommended at present. Taxonomic research is needed as well as research into population numbers and range, biology and ecology, habitat status, threats, conservation measures, and trends/monitoring of this species would be valuable. Habitat and site-based actions are also required.

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