Red List of South African Species

Alternatively, Explore species
Vulnerable (VU)
Assessors: Michael Samways
Contributors: Frank Suhling
Facilitators: Dewidine Van Der Colff
Reviewers: Domitilla Raimondo


Within the southern Africa region, this species has a wide range and is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for a threat or Near Threatened category. In view of this, it is assessed as Least Concern. The current global status is also Least Concern. However, it is marginal and very rare in South Africa and its special habitat is highly susceptible to drought and over-abstraction. Also it is potentially threatened by future mining activities and trampling by cattle. It is known from an extent of occurrence of (EOO) 13,105 km2 and an area of occupancy (AOO) of 64 km2 and from less than 10 locations. It is therefore assessed as Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv) + B2 ab(i,ii,iii,iv). This is a regional assessment at the national level and a regional adjustment has been considered, however, there is no evidence of immigration from neighbouring populations and an adjustment will not be implemented.


Within the southern Africa region, the species occurs from northern Zambia via the Caprivi, Botswana and Zimbabwe to the Waterberg Plateau in South Africa. Globally, the species occurs in South Africa and north Botswana to Zambia, and has also been recorded from Uganda. It is highly marginal in South Africa and is resident in small parts of the Limpopo Province, where it is highly susceptible to disturbances.

Population trend


 In South Africa, the species is resident but rare, and vulnerable to natural and human impacts (Samways 2006). Globally, no information is available on population size or trends.


In South Africa it is highly susceptible to drought and the lowering of water levels in pools and dams from natural drought and from over-abstraction of water from its habitat (Samways 2006). In the Waterberg area, there is the potential threat of mining and cattle trampling.


In South Africa, no specific conservation measures are in place.

Lead agencies, Partners, Funders and Data providers

See the partners page