Red List of South African Species

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Near Threatened (NT)
Assessors: Michael Samways
Contributors: Frank Suhling
Facilitators: Dewidine Van Der Colff
Reviewers: Domitilla Raimondo


Both within and outside the southern Africa region, this species has a wide distribution and is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threat or Near Threatened category. Assessed as Least Concern within the region. Its current global status is also Least Concern. However, in South Africa it has only been recorded occasionally and these are in areas with plantation forestry and invasive alien trees along river courses. This species is known from an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 18,192 km2 with only four known locations,  however, it is suspected that there are at least 10 locations, it is thus assessed as Vulnerable B1ab(iii). Further, it is not known whether this species is resident or a vagrant and more research is required. Since this is a regional assessment at the national level, a regional adjustment has been made according to the IUCN guidelines as there is potential of immigration from neighbouring countries. The species is assessed as Near Threatened B1ab(iii).


This species occurs in river systems in the eastern part of the southern Africa region (Zambezi and Limpopo catchments). It has recently been rediscovered in South Africa having not been recorded for many decades. Globally it has a wide distribution from South Africa to Kenya and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Population trend


Current population size and trends are unknown.


No information is available from much of its range. In South Africa, threats include plantation forestry, invasive alien vegetation, mine effluent and possibly agricultural run-off and impacts from invasive alien fish (Samways 2006).


No information is available from much of its range. In South Africa, no specific measures are in place or are planned at present. However, conservation of catchments in general, removal of alien trees whether plantation or self-establishing would be beneficial to the species (Samways 2006).

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