Red List of South African Species

Alternatively, Explore species
Near Threatened (NT)
Assessors: Michael Samways
Contributors: Frank Suhling
Facilitators: Dewidine Van Der Colff
Reviewers: Domitilla Raimondo


Within southern Africa, this species has a wide distribution and it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threatened or Near Threatened category. It is assessed as Least Concern in the region and Least Concern globally. In South Africa, it is at the southern tip of its range and is highly susceptible to synergistic effects of drought and the impact of game and domestic livestock. It has disappeared from some of its former localities in KwaZulu-Natal and the Kruger National Park, and will only receive immigrants from neighbouring populations if conditions are favourable. The species in known from an area of occupancy (AOO) of 36 km2 and from between five to 10 locations and is experiencing continuous decline in quality of habitat, it is assessed as Vulnerable B2ab(iii). Since there is a possibility under favorable conditions that the species can receive immigrants from neighbouring countries and because this is a regional assessment at the national level, a regional adjustment is made and the species is assessed as Near Threatened B2ab(iii).


In South Africa this species occurs in Kwazulu-Natal and the Kruger National Park. Globally, it has been recorded from Nigeria to Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Population trend


No information is available on population size or trends. The species is experiencing extreme fluctuations in its population which is driven by climatic conditions.


 In South Africa, it has very small subpopulations which are subject to drought events and to game and domestic livestock which trample the long grass at shrinking water holes. It has disappeared from Durban and iSimangaliso Kwazulu-Natal sites, as well as from some Kruger National Park sites due to habitat degradation. Globally, drainage and destruction of swampy habitats are inferred threats. However, it is unlikely that this species is seriously threatened across its entire range.


It is likely that this species is vagile across the landscape. It occurs in the large protected landscape of the Kruger Natal Park.

Lead agencies, Partners, Funders and Data providers

See the partners page