Red List of South African Species

Alternatively, Explore species
Near Threatened (NT)


Both within and outside the southern Africa region, this species has a wide distribution and is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threat or Near Threatened category. It is assessed as Least Concern within the southern African region and globally. However, in South Africa it is highly localized, only occurring along northern coastal KwaZulu-Natal (Samways 2006, 2008, Samways and Simaika 2016). It is known from an area of occupancy (AOO) of 76 km2 and an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 17,791 km2 and from between five and 10 locations. It is experiencing on-going decline in habitat quality, EOO, AOO and number of locations, due to the effect of invasive alien trees, plantation forestry, and cattle damage to water margins, domestic effluent and land transformation. This species is assessed as Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv) + B2 (i,ii,iii,iv), however since this is a regional assessment at the national level a regional adjustment based on the IUCN guidelines, is applied as the global population is stable and migration can take place from neighbouring countries, the species is thus assessed a Near Threatened B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv) + B2 (i,ii,iii,iv).


This species occurs in humid tropical parts of the southern Africa region. It has not yet been recorded from Angola, but is likely to be there. In South Africa, it is currently only known from Mtunzini to Umbogavango, in coastal KwaZulu-Natal (Samways 2008, Simaika and Samways 2016). Globally, the species is recorded from Kenya to Namibia and South Africa, it also occurs in Madagascar.

Population trend


No information is available on current population size or trends. In South Africa (its southernmost range) the only known subpopulations are small (Samways 2008, Samways and Simaika 2016).


Current threats are unknown across most of its range. However, it is unlikely to be seriously threatened across its whole range. But in South Africa it is prone to having its sites shaded out by invasive alien trees, plantation forestry up to the edge of water margins resulting in habitat loss and its habitat is declining due to domestic effluent pollution.


No specific conservation measures are known at present.

Lead agencies, Partners, Funders and Data providers

See the partners page