Red List of South African Species

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Least Concern (LC)
Assessors: Michael J Samways
Reviewers: J Simaika J Kipping


Although this species has a limited range, it can be locally common and has a relatively high tolerance of different habitat types.  It  extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 kmĀ². Many river systems in the Cape suffer from anthropogenic influences. However, efforts are underway to improve habitat (through alien invasive tree removal) and the species does not qualify for a threatened listing at present. It is currently Least Concern.


South African western Cape endemic. A record of E. frenulata from southwest Angola belongs to a different, undescribed species (see Elattoneura sp.). Known only from the Hawequas Mountains in the Western Cape. Around half the range occurs outside protected areas and half within protected areas. The range area is restricted.

Population trend


Current population size and trends are unknown. This is a locally common species.


Alien predatory fish (e.g., trout, bass), alien invasive trees (e.g., Acacia mearnsii) and human encroachment on habitats outside of reserves through urbanization are known threats to the species.


Occurs within the protected areas of Hottentots-Holland Reserve, Kogelberg Nature Reserve, Cedarberg Nature Reserve and  Table Mountain National Park. Alien invasive trees are being removed from parts of the species' range and this is proving effective. These activities should continue. Research into population numbers and range, biology and ecology, habitat status, threats, and trends/monitoring of this species would be valuable. Habitat and site-based actions are also required.

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