Red List of South African Species

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Vulnerable (VU)


This species is rare everywhere in its range, and for a long time it has not been seen at many sites where it historically was present (e.g., Michell's Pass). With the removal of invasive alien trees, it has recovered at some localities (e.g., Franschhoek Pass), however it is still Vulnerable. It is known only from a few sites (around six locations).


This species is endemic to South Africa. Two populations are known; one in the Western Cape, and one in the eastern Cape. It appears to have disappeared from Kwazulu-Natal, Drakensberg.

Population trend


Population size is unknown, but the population appears to be stable at present.


Invasive alien trees are the most important threat. Agricultural activities that cause river siltation and pollution and alien fish may also be a threat.


No specific measures are in place or envisaged. However, conservation of catchments through the removal of alien invasive trees is clearly beneficial for this species and research into population numbers and range, and trends/monitoring would also be valuable.

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