Red List of South African Species

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Least Concern (LC)


This species is still widespread and common in South Africa and seems even to benefit from some human impacts (Samways 1999). Therefore from a global perspective it is not threatened. In Namibia, however, where the species is marginal, the remaining population is very small and may be threatened (e.g., from natural disasters). Its only known location in Namibia is within Namib-Naukluft National Park. It has not been recorded from the two other known Namibia locations for more than 80 years. The single record from Botswana is also quite old (from 1977).


This species is endemic to southern Africa. It occurs in South Africa, Botswana and Namibia (Samyways 1999, Tarboton and Tarboton 2002, Martens et al. 2003).

Population trend


The species seems to be split into three subpopulations, two in South Africa (several inhabited localities) and one small subpopulation in Namibia. It is most likely extinct at two out of the three known localities, as it has not been seen there for more than 80 years. The single record from Botswana is rather old (1970) and despite intensive searches by Jens Kipping, the species was never found there.


Habitat degradation is the major threat to the species. In Namibia, groundwater extraction was most likely the reason why two subpopulations were lost.


Policy-based actions, increasing awareness and research into biology and ecology, conservation measures and trends/monitoring of the species would all be valuable. Habitat protection is also required for this species.

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