Red List of South African Species

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Vulnerable (VU)


This species is very sensitive to impacts from invasive alien trees, but has shown rapid recovery when these trees are removed. It was discovered in 2006 on top of Table Mountain following pine removal and having not been seen since 1934. Although the species is stable, its sensitivity to alien invasive trees is a concern; if these are allowed to regrow, they would have a major impact on the species. It is known from around five locations. It is listed as Vulnerable.


This species is endemic to South Africa and confined to the Cape Fold mountains (Western Cape).

Population trend


Population size is unknown, but the population is apparently stable at present.


Probably the synergistic effects of invasive alien trees, agricultural activity around streams, and introduced trout are threat to the species (Samways 2006).


Removal of invasive alien trees is benefiting this species. Avoidance of trout restocking also appears to benefit the species. Research into population numbers and range, biology and ecology, threats, and trends/monitoring of this species would be valuable. Habitat and site-based actions are also required.

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