Red List of South African Species

Alternatively, Explore species
Least Concern (LC)


This is a widespread species with no known major widespread threats that is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threatened category. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.

In central, eastern and southern Africa, it is assessed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threatened category.

The only species record for western Africa is considered dubious, and therefore it is inferred that the it does not occur in the region.


The species has been reported from Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana and probably Tanzania. Only west African record (Chad) is dubious.

In central Africa, it has been recorded from northern Zambia, Angola. Likely to be found in southern Democratic Republic of Congo.

In eastern Africa, it has been recorded in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi and Burundi: swamps in Malawi.

In southern Africa, this is a common species along rivers in the tropical north. The southern limits are the Okavango and Limpopo Rivers, with only very few records occurring southwards in South Africa (where the southern form, subspecies umsingaziense, is endemic). It has not yet been recorded from Mozambique, but is expected to occur in southern Mozambique.

The only west African record from Chad is considered dubious (Dijkstra pers. comm.).

Population trend


Population size is unknown, but it is considered locally common en southern Africa.


Drainage and destruction of swampy habitats caused by agriculture are threats to the taxon. The South African subspecies (P. c. umsingaziense) is threatened by urban development.


Known to occur within protected areas. No specific conservation measures are necessary for the species as a whole. However, further sites need to be located and some protection of known habitat would be beneficial (Samways 2006 in press).

Lead agencies, Partners, Funders and Data providers

See the partners page