Red List of South African Species

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Near Threatened (NT)


This species had not been seen for many years, but was re-discovered in December 2000 at Kosi Bay, South Africa. After that it was recorded from more localities along coastal KwaZulu Natal and coastal southern Mozambique. It seems to be restricted to that area, but we assume a wider distribution in its current EOO. It is under general threat from human population growth and from indirect pressures from tourism. In South Africa it is nationally listed as Vulnerable. Globally it is listed NT, since it nearly qualifies for criteria B1a and B2ab(i,iii).


This species has been recorded from several localities in South Africa (coastal, northern Kwazulu Natal) and southern Mozambique. It is assumed to be more widespread along that coast.

Population trend


Population size and trends are unknown.


Overgrazing and increasing urbanisation could become a threat.


No specific conservation measures are planned, although this species occurs in several protected areas, including Kosi Bay. Coastal ecosystem conservation in general will benefit this species (Samways 2006 in press). More research is needed to gather data on range, population status, habitat and threats. Further searches are urgently required, especially of its larval habitat which has not yet been confirmed (Samways 2006 in press).

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